Overview of Zimbabwean Banking Sector (Part One)

Business people build their business within the context of an environment which they sometimes may well not manage to control. The robustness of your entrepreneurial enterprise is proven by the vicissitudes of the environment. Within the environment are forces that may provide as great opportunities or menacing threats to the survival of the gumptiouspioneering, up-and-coming venture. Entrepreneurs need to understand the environment within which they operate to be able to exploit emerging opportunities and mitigate against potential dangers. bank of baroda net banking login

This content serves to create an understanding of the forces at play and their effect on savings entrepreneurs in Zimbabwe. A brief historical overview of banking in Zimbabwe is carried out. The impact of the regulatory and economical environment on the sector is assessed. A great analysis of the framework of the banking sector facilitates an appreciation of the underlying forces in the industry. 
Historical History

At independence (1980) Mvuma, zimbabwe had a complex banking and financial market, with commercial banks mostly foreign held. The country had a central bank inherited from the Central Bank of Rhodesia and Nyasaland at the winding up of the Federation.

For the first few years of independence, the government of Zimbabwe would not obstruct with the banking industry. There was neither nationalisation of foreign banks or restrictive legislative interference on which sectors to account or the interest levels to charge, despite the socialistic national ideology. However, the government purchased some shareholding in two banks. This acquired Nedbank’s 62% of Rhobank at a good price when your bank withdrew from the country. The choice may have been determined by the need to stabilise the banking system. The bank was re-branded as Zimbank. The point out did not interfere much in the functions of the bank. The Point out in 1981 also joined with Bank of Credit rating and Commerce International (BCCI) as a 49% aktionär in a new commercial bank, Bank of Credit rating and Commerce Zimbabwe (BCCZ). This was absorbed and converted to Commercial Loan company of Zimbabwe (CBZ) when BCCI collapsed in 1991 over allegations of underhanded business practices.

This should not be viewed as nationalisation but in range with state policy to stop company closures. The shareholdings in both Zimbank and CBZ were later diluted to below 25% each.
In the first 10 years, no indigenous bank was qualified and there is no evidence that the government had any financial reform plan. Harvey (n. d., page 6) cites the following as data of deficiency of a logical financial reform plan in those years:

– In 1981 the federal government explained that it would encourage non-urban banking services, however the plan was not implemented.
– In 1982 and 1983 a Money and Fund Commission was proposed but never constituted.
– By simply 1986 there was no mention of any financial reform agenda in the Five Year National Expansion Plan.

Harvey argues that the reticence of obama administration to intervene in the financial sector could be explained by the simple fact that it would not want to jeopardise the interests of the white population, of which consumer banking was an integral part. The country was prone to this sector of the citizenry as it manipulated culture and manufacturing, which were the mainstay of the economy. The state of hawaii adopted a conventional method to indigenisation as it had learnt a class from other African countries, whose economies practically flattened due to forceful eviction of the white community without first making a device of skills transfer and capacity building in the dark community. The monetary cost of inappropriate intervention was deemed to be way too high. Another plausible reason for the non- intervention plan is that the Condition, at independence, inherited a highly manipulated monetary coverage, with tight exchange control mechanisms, from its forerunner. Since control of overseas currency damaged charge of credit, the government by standard, a new strong control of the sector for both economical and politics purposes; hence it performed not need to get in the way.